Environmental Protection Agency, have been grouped into nine series. These nine broad cate- gories were established to facilitate further development and application of en- vironmental technology. Elimination of traditional grouping was consciously planned to foster technology transfer and a maximum interface in related fields. The nine series are: 1.
Strip mining of coal: environmental solutions (Book) | paintingsallart.com
In light of the energy shortage, extraction of coal by strip mining techniques can be expected to continue and expand. According to a recent government report, it has been estimated that over 50 percent of U. In the past strip mining was generally conducted with little regard for its effect on the environment. This has resulted in erosion and water pollution and left areas esthetically scarred and unusable for agriculture, grazing, or recreational use. Techniques are available to reclaim abandoned strip mined lands and to conduct mining in a way that prevents detrimental environmental effects. Authorities emphasize the importance of premining planning and point out that reclamation is less costly and more effective when integrated with the mining operation. This book, based on 19 government reports issued from through , describes coal surface mining land use and methods, land reclamation methods and sediment and erosion control.
The dust and particles from mining roads, stockpiles, and lands disturbed by mining are a significant source of air pollution. This section describes the five main types of surface coal mining techniques: area mining, open pit mining, contour mining, auger mining , and mountaintop removal. Underground mining is also considered in this section. Terrain, economics , and custom generally dictate which technique an operator chooses. All surface or strip mining first removes the overlying vegetation, soil and underground rock layers in order to expose and extract coal from an underground seam or coal deposit.
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